Aircraft Maintenance Technology

APR 2014

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Page 10 of 35 | 11 It is important that every- one work ing in mainte- nance is cognizant of these fundaments. That includes a l l ma nagers. Nat iona l Aviation Authorities, who have human factors regula- tions, require that the train- ing is extended to the high- est rank ing management personnel. Module 9 requirements h ave been volu nt a r i ly extended by many orga- nizations who have rec- ognized the potential and demonstrated safet y and financial payback. These requirements are also expanding as regulations. For example, EASA has proposed (NPA 2013-19) to match SMS and enhance Module 9 by adding such topics as: organizational error, risk management, occurrence reporting, safety culture, and just culture. From general HF knowledge to application in the workplace Over the past 25 years human fac- tors issues have become a familiar topic and vocabular y for engineers/ mechanics worldwide. Today's work- ers have received the Module 9 topics in school, in general employee training, and in selected recurrent training. Now they would likely benefit from new top- ics or in a more advanced version of the familiar Module 9 topics. To prepare for this article I created a possible listing of new topics for engi- neering HF training. I sent the list to a selected international group comprised of regulators, airlines, MROs, manu- facturers, and notable consultants. The response was fast and included topics shown in Table 2. It is divided into two sections to include: Expanded Treatment of Current Topics and New Topics. These are the topics that will convert maintenance human factors challenges into organizational solu- tions. This information is not measured by a written test but, instead, by orga- nizational actions that have a positive effect on key performance indicators. HF training evolution The topics of Mod- ule 9 remain rel- evant. The same holds true for the 12 most common contributing fac- tors to human error, still required by Transport Canada regulations. That does not mean that it is fine to use the same slides, movies, and other media/war stories that were created in the early '90s. In fact, such media and training methods could render relevant topics to irrelevant. When the slides and media are older than some of the students it is likely overdue for new methods. As an example, Lufthansa Technical Training redesigned and launched some of its HF training as an Apple Applica- tion. FA A stepped up with modern web- based fatigue awareness training program and new video (Grounded) www.hfsky- Perhaps the best example of new Engineering HF training is the mul- timedia package developed by the Civil Aviation Safety Authority of Australia. It is titled Safety Behaviours — Human Factors for Engineers. It is available at That program is described in Aircraft Maintenance Tech- nology, September 2013. It is also on the FA A web site at Finally, there are many excellent third parties offering HF training. Be sure to ask about the age of their materials and media before signing a contract. 25-year progress In current aviation maintenance circles the term "human factors" is a household word. That was not true in 1988. The value and importance of human fac- tors training is no longer debated. The only debate now is how to ensure that the training and application remains relevant and high value in modern avia- tion maintenance work environments. Acknowledgements* The author ack nowledges the many industr y professionals that contrib- uted to the list of expanded and new topics/subtopics. Por t ions of t h is work are reported in the International Federation of Air wor thine ss Ne ws (Winter 2013) and the FA A Human Factors Newsletter. TABLE 2. Expanded and New Topics/Subtopics for HF Training Expanded topics/subtopics: 1. Safety culture and motivation 2. The power of the individual in safety culture 3. Safety culture leadership 4. Review of fundamentals like PEAR, Dirty Dozen, Swiss Cheese 5. Personal responsibility for: Fitness for duty, especially fatigue self-reporting 6. Using technical publications, job cards, etc. 7. Professional ethics and pride in workmanship 8. Additional physiology 9. Crew resource management (team working between mechanics, between mechanics and flight crew and between mechanics and flight operations and maintenance control.) New topics/subtopics: 1. SMS intro to include risk assessment and fundamentals of threat and error management 2. Voluntary reporting of error, including what to report (WIIFM?) 3. Emphasis that workers may know the hazards better than management 4. Peer to peer assessments and coaching like maintenance and ramp LOSA 5. Showing how safety data are used 6. Showing the safety and cost return on safety interventions (from employee data) 7. Generation thinking/communication 8. Social media and work TABLE 1. Traditional EASA Module 9 Topics 9.1 General 9.2 Human Performance and Limitations 9.3 Social Psychology 9.4 Factors Affecting Performance 9.5 Physical Environment 9.6 Tasks 9.7 Communication 9.8 Human Error 9.9 Hazards in the Workplace 4/7/14 1:24 PM

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